Haydn composed 'Mass in Time of War' recognizing Europe's collective concern over the ambitious, youthful and at the time successful Napoleon. As he was was working on it, the Austrians were fighting to keep the French from their homeland. Some writers have suggested that the baleful timpani part in the Agnus Dei reflects Haydn's reaction to the escalating military conflict; these timpani passages inspired the work's nickname, 'Paukenmesse' (Timpani Mass). The work is for a Quartet of Solo Voices, SATB chorus and Orchestra. This version is edited by Michael R. Miller and includes a piano accompaniment.