Sixteenth century Spanish composer and vihuelist Alonso De Mudarra (also Alonso Mudarra) was born in Guadalajara, raised in aristocratic households, became a priest and later canon at Seville Cathedral in 1546 just before he published his vihuela book. The vihuela was a gut-Stringed instrument that has elements in common with the lute and Guitar. Mudarra published three volumes of music for the vihuela that comprised seventy-seven works and many innovations, including, in this piece, the first recorded use of folia, a musical framework. This Fantasia seeks to imitate the legendary harpist Ludovico, of the court of Ferdinand III of Aragon, using cross rhythms and chormaticism to recall the harp. Some performers choose to play this work at speed, recalling, perhaps, the 17th century definition of ‘folia’ as ‘mad’ and referring to a fast, noisy dance.