Giuseppe Verdi's 'Il Trovatore' was based on a play by Gutierrez, adapted by Salvtor Cammerano. Although the critics may complain about its lack of subtlety - it is filled with exactly the kinds of twists and unlikely coincidences that form the modern jokey stereotype of opera - 'Il Trovatore' will always be an audience favorite because of its wealth of great music. Verdi was stirred to the height of his inspiration by this work, and from its premiere it was an even greater success than its predecessor, 'Rigoletto'. The importance of Verdi's 'Il Trovatore' lies in its music; it displays some of the most ingratiating and beautiful melodies he ever wrote. This edition of the Libretto is in Italian with an English translation by Bernard Stambler.